Fundamentally improve the intrinsic safety level of the petroleum and chemical industries
At the 2019 China Responsible Care Promotion Conference held recently, Li Shousheng, president of the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation, delivered an important speech entitled "Insist on Problem-oriented and Strengthening the Fundamental Policy to Fundamentally Enhance the Intrinsic Safety Level of the Petroleum and Chemical Industry." The following is the speech:
As we all know, the chemical industry is the basic industry and pillar industry of the national economy. Chemical products are closely related to people's production and life. From food and clothing to cutting-edge high-tech fields, chemical products are everywhere and everywhere. In particular, new chemical materials occupy an important position in the national economy. Its development status is an important manifestation of the development level of a country's manufacturing industry, and it is a competitive commanding point for developed countries to compete for. Without the superiority and strength of the chemical industry, the goal of a manufacturing powerhouse will be difficult to achieve, and people's living standards and quality will also be greatly affected. At the same time, many dangerous chemicals and their production processes are characterized by high temperature and high pressure, flammable, explosive, toxic and harmful. The production process is not standardized, management supervision is not in place, disposal measures are not appropriate, and it is easy to cause safety and environmental accidents. The important position and special nature of the chemical industry determine the extreme importance of safe development, green development and responsible care for the healthy and sustainable development of the industry.
Responsible Care is a self-regulatory action in the global chemical industry. Since the launch of the Global Responsible Care Charter from the International Federation of Chemical Industry Associations in 2005 to the world chemical industry, it means that the global chemical industry must consciously assume the safety production, occupational health, energy conservation and environmental protection of the petroleum and chemical industries while developing the chemical industry. The initiative of green development and greater responsibility. The implementation of Responsible Care in the chemical industry means that the company should implement the main responsibility, improve the intrinsic safety level, achieve green development, and effectively control the safety and environmental risks while meeting the needs of people's material needs, improving people's quality of life and creating a better life. Especially in the current critical period of China's chemical industry climbing the slopes, rolling stones up the mountain, and transforming to high-quality development, low-end overcapacity and high-end capacity supply are insufficient, innovation ability is not strong, resource and environmental capacity is limited, and enterprise management is uneven. With the rapid growth of market demand, the lag of the standardization of chemical parks and the acceleration of the relocation of hazardous chemicals enterprises, and many other factors, the potential hidden dangers of serious safety and environmental accidents are many. China's chemical industry is facing a severe situation with frequent and extraordinary accidents. Green development faces a arduous and arduous task. Responsible care is faced with the urgent mission of raising awareness, improving the level, and taking responsibility. It must be done without delay. We must not cover the ugly and short-sighted, ill-health, and develop the chemical industry at the expense of safety and environmental protection. We must not do nothing, squander waste, squander martial arts, artificially limit or even abandon the development of the chemical industry. We must comprehensively understand and thoroughly implement Xi Jinping's socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era, adhere to the problem-oriented, follow the roots of problems, find the bull's-eye, and draw a conclusion, cross-cutting, comprehensive physical examination, comprehensive rectification, and overall improvement, and embark on a safe and environmentally friendly, A new path of high-quality development of green and low-carbon, with the determination and courage of the strong man to break the wrist to win the hard work and amnesty of the whole society and the whole industry.
Below, combined with the theme of this conference, "Safety Improvement, Green Development, and Responsibility", I will focus on three opinions:
First, the next effort to enhance the safety production level of the whole industry
Since 2018, our industry has successively suffered major accidents such as the “7·12” accident in Yibin, the “11•28” accident in Zhangjiakou, and the “3•21” accident in Yancheng, causing huge losses to the lives and property of the people. Operation has a huge negative impact. The first two accidents have been investigated, and the Yancheng “3·21” accident is still under investigation. In the thick investigation report of the first two typical cases, I sorted out the direct causes of the two accidents.
On July 12, 2018, Sichuan Jinqiao Logistics Co., Ltd. sent 2 tons of COD remover labeled as raw material, sodium chlorate, which is actually a explosive chemical, to the warehouse of Yibin Hengda Company. The company's warehouse manager did not verify it. In the case of this, it was mistakenly stored as a raw material butanamide. After more than three hours, it was taken out by the operator and poured into the reaction kettle for normal temperature-heating and dehydration operation. The wrong raw material immediately exploded, causing the reactor to be seriously disintegrated. As the high-temperature toluene vapor rushed out of the explosion quickly formed an explosive mixture with the outside air, followed by a second explosion, which caused the stacked sodium chlorate, toluene and formic acid to ignite. The major explosion caused a serious accident of 19 deaths, 12 injuries and direct economic losses of 41.42 million yuan. This is a violation of the accident when the raw materials are stored in the warehouse.
On November 28, 2018, the leakage of vinyl chloride from Shenghua Chemical Company spread to the outside of the plant and deflagration occurred in the event of fire. Afterwards, it was found that the company's three vinyl chloride gas cabinets were completed and put into use in 2012. According to the equipment management regulations, the gas cabinets should be repaired once a year and overhauled in five years. However, the No. 1 gas cabinet was not inspected according to the regulations for 6 years. The 24 inner guide wheels and 12 outer guide wheels of the gas cabinet were severely deformed, causing the gas cabinet to tilt and stutter, so that the gas cabinet quickly became 5.81 in 43 seconds. The meter dropped to 1.99 meters, dropped by 2.75 meters, and the vinyl chloride leaked out a lot, and it exploded in the event of a fire. This major deflagration accident resulted in 24 deaths, 21 injuries, 38 large trucks and 12 small cars destroyed, and the direct economic loss was a serious consequence of 41.48 million yuan. This is a major accident caused by a series of illegal operations such as equipment management.
These two major accidents fully reflect the objective reality that our industry's safety production management foundation is still weak and the safety production situation is still very serious. From these two typical accidents, we can clearly see that all the safety accidents are caused by three direct causes: violation of regulations, failure to implement safety responsibilities, and inadequate safety supervision.
The first is illegal operation. There are rules and regulations, and violations are not checked. This is almost the direct cause of all accidents. Many of the operators have poor job skills, and some do not even have any job qualifications. They do not understand the significance of setting process indicators. They are not aware of job safety risks and violate operational regulations at key points. Some enterprises fail to repair according to regulations for a long time. Operators cannot find equipment abnormalities in time. Some even ignore laws and regulations completely. How do they want to do what they want? The security risks are completely out of control, and they do not have the basic conditions for safe production.
Second, the responsibility for production safety is not implemented. Corporate legal awareness and security risk awareness are weak, and the security responsibility system is not perfect. There are serious shortcomings in many aspects such as safety management assessment, personnel quality requirements, safety responsibility level and post responsibility system. The assessment work “emphasizes the form, flows on the surface, re-evaluates the results and neglects the process management”, and the responsibility of the enterprise security main body is not in place. Some enterprises have also put the slogans and rules and regulations such as "safety first" on the wall, but they have not really put safety production on the important agenda. There are no specific measures and clear requirements in the actual work. More lack of strict assessment and organizational guarantees. Some enterprises are still seriously violating the law and doing their own thing even in the case of continuous investigation, notification, and fines. "Formalism" in production safety kills people.
Third, supervision is not in place. These major accidents have fully exposed that corporate and regulatory authorities are not in place. Many regulatory authorities have problems such as insufficient ideological understanding, regulatory deviation, source access and unsatisfactory law enforcement, especially the special nature of chemical products and their production processes, requiring that supervision must have the professionalism and seriousness it deserves. Some local regulatory authorities are not equipped with the necessary professional supervisors. They are inaccurate and inconvenient to solve problems in safety production. They cannot find deep-level problems and cannot solve the fundamental problems. They only pay attention to the above. To confess, do not understand the true state of the enterprise. Many regulations are in the form, often satisfied with “going”, “looking”, “criticizing” and “requesting”, not serious, not deep, and passing through. Repeated and repeated rehearsal and formal inspections have not achieved the desired effect, but have brought unnecessary burdens to enterprises.
From the practice of the development of the world chemical industry, from the experience of security management of multinational corporations, safe production is preventable and controllable. DuPont, which has a history of more than 200 years, believes that "all accidents can be prevented, and all safety hazards are controllable." This is the safety management experience that DuPont has summarized over the course of hundreds of years of practice. A set of effective HSE safety production management systems. Developed countries have generally gone through the development cycle from accidents to basic stability to fundamental improvement. They have accumulated rich experience and profound lessons in various aspects such as legal system, administrative supervision, association supervision, and enterprise self-discipline. We must learn from the advanced experience of foreign countries and firmly establish the scientific concept that "safe production is controllable and controllable, and safety accidents can be prevented." We must use the lessons of blood to exchange iron self-discipline and steel management.
In order to enhance the safety production level of the whole industry in essence, it is necessary to take four major measures to jointly promote joint efforts, treat both the symptoms and the root causes, and maintain long-term stability.
First, implement the enterprise safety production responsibility system. Enterprises are the mainstay of safe production, and the main responsibility must be put in place. Enterprises must firmly establish a safety-first awareness of risk prevention. The value of life cannot be replaced. Any chemical products and benefits cannot be exchanged for life. It is necessary to firmly establish the safety awareness of all employees, and even the best technology, and the perfect rules, can not replace the quality and responsibility of people in the actual operation level. From the chemical raw material management, production process management, equipment operation management, waste discharge management, emergency measures management to leadership responsibility management, the company must be fully implemented. It is necessary to implement the main responsibility of the enterprise in the daily operation of the enterprise, and turn the main responsibility into self-consciousness, into action, and in the real place. It must not be said only on the mouth, printed on paper, attached to the wall, keen. For the creation of "bonsai", the flower shelf. It is necessary to bite the safety of all employees, the safety of the whole process, and the overall safety. We will work hard on the system construction, move the real knife in the implementation of the system, and operate the real problem in solving the problem, seeking truthful improvement in the improvement of the system. In the safety assessment, there are rules, and there are rules to follow. Violations must be corrected, and the level of safety management is truly improved. The responsibility of the main body of the enterprise has been implemented, and the safe and productive production has the most basic and reliable guarantee.
The second is to comprehensively improve the professional level of self-discipline in the industry. The occurrence of an accident is the result of mass accumulation. The German inventor of the aircraft turbine, Pabs Hein, has proposed a famous law on flight safety: behind every serious accident, there must be 29 minor accidents and 300 unforeseen precursors and 1000 accidents. Haien's Law tells us that any accident has a harbinger, and the details determine success or failure. Enterprises must strengthen self-discipline, start from small hidden danger management, take every link seriously, do a good job in daily safety management, eliminate the unsafe behavior and unsafe state at the bottom of the "safety pyramid", consolidate the safety production base, and realize the whole process. Safety. It is necessary to cultivate a safety culture, establish a safety concept of "everyday, month, and year" and a scientific attitude of "process management", cultivate a conscious, strict, and high-level style, and accelerate from "must be safe". To the "I want to be safe, I will be safe, I can be safe" change, create a strong safety culture atmosphere and a good development environment, and in essence enhance the safety management level of the whole industry. Industry associations should restore and carry forward the good style and tradition of conducting mutual inspections, mutual learning, exchange of experiences, learning from each other, and growing together in the same industry.
Third, safety supervision should be in place. The purpose of safety supervision is to prevent it from happening before, safety supervision should be pragmatic, and it must be pragmatic. The inspection of the enterprise is not as good as possible, the more frequently the better, the key is to check the quality and effectiveness of supervision. It is necessary to improve the professional standards of safety supervision, organize professional forces to check, check and verify, and not be punished, and punish. We must conscientiously carry forward and implement the "four do not let go" good traditions and good styles, and we must earnestly do "the cause of the accident has not been cleared, the responsible personnel have not handled it, the rectification measures have not been implemented, and the relevant Personnel are not educated, and education, rectification, and promotion are simultaneously promoted, and the hidden dangers of safety production accidents will be greatly reduced. The supervision of government departments can be carried out by themselves or by professional associations or professional organizations, but it is necessary to reduce inefficient or even ineffective supervision.
The fourth is to speed up the improvement of safety production laws and regulations. Drawing on the experience of developed countries, implementing the principle of “who makes risk to control” and “action must be proportional to risk”, formulate a legal system for chemical safety production with risk prevention and control as the center. In the United Kingdom, for example, after a major chemical enterprise safety production accident occurred in the 1970s, the British government established a sound legal and regulatory system centered on the Work Health and Safety Law. This system contains nearly 200 regulations, more than 50 standards and regulations, nearly 500 guiding regulations, three-dimensional, multi-level, full coverage of chemical safety production laws and regulations system. The strict legal and regulatory system has enabled British chemical companies to form a habit of preventing risks, and established a normal system of submitting safety reports, formulating emergency plans, providing timely information to the public, and the responsibilities and rights of government departments, industry associations and enterprises. The obligations and obligations are very clear, and the main responsibility of the enterprise has been effectively implemented, forming a long-term mechanism for the process, equipment, on-site management and emergency management system, effectively preventing the occurrence of serious accidents.
We believe that these four major measures are the fundamental solution for both the symptoms and the root causes. Governments, associations, and enterprises must work together and advance together. From the perspective of industry self-discipline, enterprises should put the implementation of the main responsibility in the first place. The Petrochemical Federation should do its best to implement the first two measures and assist the relevant government departments to implement the latter two measures. As long as the vast number of enterprises truly put their responsibility for safety production on their hearts, on their shoulders, and on their hands, we will be "responsible for the sake of the soil, responsible for the soil, and responsible for the soil." We are confident that we will lay a solid foundation for safe production management and enhance this hardship. As soon as possible, we will reverse the current situation of frequent and serious accidents, and establish a new image of safe development and harmonious development in the whole society.
Second, achieve high-level green development transformation of the whole industry
Green chemistry is a major trend in the current restructuring and upgrading of the global petrochemical industry, and is another new realm in the development of the petroleum and chemical industries. The chemical industry has the ability to change substances from the molecular structure. The essence of green chemistry is to use the chemical principle to eliminate pollution from the source and make full use of raw material efficiency in the chemical reaction process to achieve the purpose of saving raw materials and energy and reducing emissions. The greening of the entire life cycle from raw material processing to final disposal of the product. Green chemistry includes new chemical reaction process research, green energy-saving transformation of traditional chemical processes, clean utilization of traditional energy sources, renewable resources and green biochemical technologies for comprehensive utilization. Internationally, it attaches great importance to green chemistry. For example, in 1996, the United States established the “President Green Chemistry Challenge Award” to commend and encourage chemical companies to develop green chemistry.
Since the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan”, the whole industry has implemented green sustainable development